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Table 1 Examples of knowledge types represented in DDO ontology

From: DDO: a diabetes mellitus diagnosis ontology

Knowledge type Definition Examples
Laboratory test A set of tests to measure the level of blood glucose, and others Blood glucose tests: HbA1C, 2 h OGTT, FPG, RPG
Hematological profile: prothrombin INR, red cell count, Hbg, hematocrit (PCV), MCV, MCH, MCHC, platelet count, white cell count, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils
Kidney function laboratory tests: serum potassium, serum urea, serum uric acid, serum creatinine, serum sodium
Lipid profile: LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol
Tumor markers: FERRITIN, AFP serum, CA-125
urine analysis: chemical examination (protein, blood, bilirubin, glucose, ketones, urobilinogen) Microscopic examination (pus, red blood cells (RBcs), crystals)
Liver function tests: serum albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, SGOT (AST), SGPT (ALT), alk phosphatase, γ GT, total protein
Females history: amenorrhea, birth, dysmenorrhea
Disease Diseases that are often present with diabetes (diabetes complications) Acute: cardiomyopathy, bacterial infection, ketoacidosis, obesity, ovarian disease, neoplastic disease, etc
Chronic: nonvascular such as dental disease, kidney disease, skin disease, sexual disease, and gastropathy; vascular such as macrovascular and microvascular
Symptom The set of common diabetes symptoms Weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger), weight gain, blurred vision, etc
Drug The drugs that increase blood glucose, and can induce diabetes either by interfering with insulin production and secretion, reducing the effectiveness of insulin in regulating metabolism, or others Cardiovascular drugs, CNS drugs, an enzyme inhibitor, a hematologic drug, an immunotherapeutic agent, retinoid, antiallergenic drugs, and others