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Table 4 Examples of OWL object properties (class-level association) in the DDO

From: DDO: a diabetes mellitus diagnosis ontology

Property Definition Inverse of Domain Range
has_disposition Defines the patient’s current diseases disposition_of Patient Disease
has_quality Defines the patient’s current symptoms Quality_of Patient Diabetes symptom
has_lab_test Defines the patient’s laboratory tests   Patient Diabetes laboratory test
has_physical_examination Defines diabetes associated physical examinations   Patient Diabetes physical examination
is_about Links the patient’s type of diagnosis with the diabetes disease type   Diabetes diagnosis Diabetes mellitus
leads_to Associates a drug or chemical substance with a disorder result_from Drug, chemical substance Disorder
Realizes Associates a diabetes disease course with a diabetes disease realized_in Diabetes disease course Diabetes mellitus
takes_drug Determines the drugs taken by the patient   Drug Patient
has_role Defines a relationship between human and patient role_of Human Patient
Contains Defines the chemical entities and drugs contained_in Drug Chemical entity
has_measurement_unit Defines the measurement units of laboratory tests   Diabetes laboratory test Measurement unit label
has_demographic Defines patient demographics   Patient Demographic
has_diagnosis Defines the patient diagnosis   Patient Diabetes diagnosis
has_symptom Is the relationship between a disease and its symptoms symptom_of Disease Symptom
finding_site Specifies the body site affected by a condition   Disease or disorder Organ
Total number of object properties 45